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Actuated Tangible User Interface Objects (ACTOs) should be equipped with a self-tracked motor unit.
A technology called "Speckle Sensing" should be integrated into the layout of an existing motor unit. A sensor and a light source are embedded into the device, comparable to the configuration of a traditional optical mouse. In that way the ACTOs can be used on and above arbitrary surfaces without the need for additional equipment for tracking.
The sensor has to be operable over a modified Arduino.